Well, ginkgo is ginkgo biloba, a herb said to enhance brain function...it has sort of heart-shaped leaves and sometimes grows around here [Vancouver] in people's gardens. Hah, that was the easy one. Anyone else?
Pycnogenol® is a water extract from the bark of the French maritime pine grown as a mono-species forest, spread over the coastal region of south-west France. The unique source of Pycnogenol®, the "pine bark" has a well-established monograph based on macroscopic and microscopic findings...
Calcium carbonate, also known as calcite or argonite (depending on the crystal structure of the compound) is basically limestone. It is the active ingredient of antacid tablets (Tums).
Beta-carotene is a precursor to Vitamin A. Which just means that it is consumed from plants as beta carotene and broken down by the body to vit A. You're right brahmacharya that it is a pigment (carotenoid) found in plants.
BHT is a preservative, antioxidant which keeps fats in food products from becoming rancid. I think it's also used in the plastics industry. I used to use it when I worked in a chemistry lab to keep certain chemicals from breaking down in storage.
Never heard of pycnogenol so looked it up and apparently it's an antioxidant derived from extracts of bark from some type of French pine tree. Can't help you much with this one.