>>I can understand this when it comes to certain types of mathematics. I'm having a hard time wrapping my head around it as it pertains to the physical world.
We ASSUME that objects in the universe are set in causal relations, and thus build transformational rules into our logics which correspond roughly to causal relations among terms. This system works for us rather well, in terms of rendering our observations more ordered and allowing for manipulation of the world towards our ends. Causation as such, however, is assumed, not deduced.